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11/23/2011 12:17:11 PM
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  Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester I
MB0042 – Managerial Economics - 4 Credits
(Book ID: B0908)
Assignment Set- 1 ( 60 Marks)

Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Price elasticity of demand depends on various factors. Explain each factor with the help of an example.

Ans:- Price Elasticity of Demand
In the words of Prof. Stonier and Hague, price elasticity of demand is a technical term used by economists to explain the degree of responsiveness of the demand for a product to a change in its price.
where Ep is price elasticity
It implies that at the present level with every change in price, there will be a change in demand four times inversely. Generally the co-efficient of price elasticity of demand always holds a negative sign because there is an inverse relation between the price and quantity demanded.
Symbolically Ep =
Original demand = 20 units original price = 6 – 00
New demand = 60 units New price = 4 – 00
In the above example, price elasticity is – 6.
The rate of change in demand may not always be proportionate to the change in price. A small change in price may lead to very great change in demand or a big change in price may not lead to a great change in demand. Based on numerical values of the co-efficient of elasticity, we can have the following five degrees of price elasticity of demand.
Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand
The elasticity of demand depends on several factors of which the following are some of the important ones.
1. Nature of the Commodity
Commodities coming under the category of necessaries and essentials tend to be inelastic because people buy them whatever may be the price. For example, rice, wheat, sugar, milk, vegetables etc. on the other hand, for comforts and luxuries, demand tends to be elastic e.g., TV sets, refrigerators etc.
2. Existence of Substitutes
Substitute goods are those that are considered to be economically interchangeable by buyers. If a commodity has no substitutes in the market, demand tends to be inelastic because people have to pay higher price for such articles. For example. Salt, onions, garlic, ginger etc. In case of commodities having different substitutes, demand tends to be elastic. For example, blades, tooth pastes, soaps etc.
3. Number of uses for the commodity
Single-use goods are those items which can be used for only one purpose and multiple-use goods can be used for a variety of purposes. If a commodity has only one use (singe use product) then demand tends to be inelastic because people have to pay more prices if they have to use that product for only one use. For example, all kinds of. eatables, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc. On the contrary, commodities having several uses, [multiple-use-products] demand tends to be elastic. For example, coal, electricity, steel etc.
4. Durability and reparability of a commodity
Durable goods are those which can be used for a long period of time. Demand tends to be elastic in case of durable and repairable goods because people do not buy them frequently. For example, table, chair, vessels etc. On the other hand, for perishable and non-repairable goods, demand tends to be inelastic e.g., milk, vegetables, electronic watches etc.
5. Possibility of postponing the use of a commodity
In case there is no possibility to postpone the use of a commodity to future, the demand tends to be inelastic because people have to buy them irrespective of their prices. For example, medicines. If there is possibility to postpone the use of a commodity, demand tends to be elastic e.g., buying a TV set, motor cycle, washing machine or a car etc.
6. Level of Income of the people
Generally speaking, demand will be relatively inelastic in case of rich people because any change in market price will not alter and affect their purchase plans. On the contrary, demand tends to be elastic in case of poor.
7. Range of Prices
There are certain goods or products like imported cars, computers, refrigerators, TV etc, which are costly in nature. Similarly, a few other goods like nails; needles etc. are low priced goods. In all these cases, a small fall or rise in prices will have insignificant effect on their demand. Hence, demand for them is inelastic in nature. However, commodities having normal prices are elastic in nature.
8. Proportion of the expenditure on a commodity
When the amount of money spent on buying a product is either too small or too big, in that case demand tends to be inelastic. For example, salt, newspaper or a site or house. On the other hand, the amount of money spent is moderate; demand in that case tends to be elastic. For example, vegetables and fruits, cloths, provision items etc.
9. Habits
When people are habituated for the use of a commodity, they do not care for price changes over a certain range. For example, in case of smoking, drinking, use of tobacco etc. In that case, demand tends to be inelastic. If people are not habituated for the use of any products, then demand generally tends to be elastic.
10. Period of time
Price elasticity of demand varies with the length of the time period. Generally speaking, in the short period, demand is inelastic because consumption habits of the people, customs and traditions etc. do not change. On the contrary, demand tends to be elastic in the long period where there is possibility of all kinds of changes.
11. Level of Knowledge
Demand in case of enlightened customer would be elastic and in case of ignorant customers, it would be inelastic.
12. Existence of complementary goods
Goods or services whose demands are interrelated so that an increase in the price of one of the products results in a fall in the demand for the other. Goods which are jointly demanded are inelastic in nature. For example, pen and ink, vehicles and petrol, shoes and socks etc have inelastic demand for this reason. If a product does not have complements, in that case demand tends to be elastic. For example, biscuits, chocolates, ice creams etc. In this case the use of a product is not linked to any other products.
13. Purchase frequency of a product
If the frequency of purchase is very high, the demand tends to be inelastic. For e.g., coffee, tea, milk, match box etc. on the other hand, if people buy a product occasionally, demand tends to be elastic. For example, durable goods like radio, tape recorders, refrigerators etc.
Thus, the demand for a product is elastic or inelastic will depend on a number of factors.

Q.2 A company is selling a particular brand of tea and wishes to introduce a new flavor. How will the company forecast demand for it ?

Ans:- To deliver the right products to the right customers portably requires a fundamental shift in retail decision making from art to science; and from one that is based on human intuition to one that is driven by customer data.

Demand Forecasting for a New Product
Demand forecasting for new products is quite different from that for established products. Here the firms will not have any past experience or past data for this purpose. An intensive study of the economic and competitive characteristics of the product should be made to make efficient forecasts.
Professor Joel Dean, however, has suggested a few guidelines to make forecasting of demand for new products.
a) Evolutionary approach
The demand for the new product may be considered as an outgrowth of an existing product. For e.g., Demand for new Tata Indica, which is a modified version of Old Indica can most effectively be projected based on the sales of the old Indica, the demand for new Pulsar can be forecasted based on the a sales of the old Pulsor. Thus when a new product is evolved from the old product, the demand conditions of the old product can be taken as a basis for forecasting the demand for the new product.
b) Substitute approach
If the new product developed serves as substitute for the existing product, the demand for the new product may be worked out on the basis of a ‘market share’. The growths of demand for all the products have to be worked out on the basis of intelligent forecasts for independent variables that influence the demand for the substitutes. After that, a portion of the market can be sliced out for the new product. For e.g., A moped as a substitute for a scooter, a cell phone as a substitute for a land line. In some cases price plays an important role in shaping future demand for the product.
c) Opinion Poll approach
Under this approach the potential buyers are directly contacted, or through the use of samples of the new product and their responses are found out. These are finally blown up to forecast the demand for the new product.
d) Sales experience approach
Offer the new product for sale in a sample market; say supermarkets or big bazaars in big cities, which are also big marketing centers. The product may be offered for sale through one super market and the estimate of sales obtained may be ‘blown up’ to arrive at estimated demand for the product.
e) Growth Curve approach
According to this, the rate of growth and the ultimate level of demand for the new product are estimated on the basis of the pattern of growth of established products. For e.g., An Automobile Co., while introducing a new version of a car will study the level of demand for the existing car.
f) Vicarious approach
A firm will survey consumers’ reactions to a new product indirectly through getting in touch with some specialized and informed dealers who have good knowledge about the market, about the different varieties of the product already available in the market, the consumers’ preferences etc. This helps in making a more efficient estimation of future demand.
These methods are not mutually exclusive. The management can use a combination of several of them, supplement and cross check each other.

Q.3 The supply of a product depends on the price. What are the other factors that will affect the supply of a product.
Ans:- Factors Determining Elasticity of Supply (Determinants)
1. Time period: Time has a greater influence on elasticity of supply than on demand. Generally supply tends to be inelastic in the short run because time available to organize and adjust supply to demand is insufficient. Supply would be more elastic in the long run.
2. Availability and mobility of factors of production : When factors of production are available in plenty and freely mobile from one occupation to another, supply tends to be elastic and vice - versa.
3. Technological improvements: Modern methods of production expand output and hence supply tends to be elastic. Old methods reduce output and supply tends to be inelastic.
4. Cost of production: If cost of production rises rapidly as output expands, then there will not be much incentive to increase output as the extra benefit will be choked off by the increase in cost. Hence supply tends to be inelastic and vice-versa.
5. Kinds and nature of markets: If the seller is selling his product in different markets, supply tends to be elastic in any one of the market because, a fall in the price in one market will induce him to sell in another market. Again, if he is producing several types of goods and can switch over easily from one to another, then each of his products will be elastic in supply.
6. Political conditions: Political conditions may disrupt production of a product. In that case, supply tends to become inelastic.
7. Number of sellers : Supply tends to become more elastic if there are more sellers freely selling their products and vice-versa.
8. Prices of related goods : A firm can charge a higher price for its products, if prices of other products are higher and vice-versa.
9. Goals of the firm : If the seller is happy with small output, supply tends to be inelastic and vice-versa.
Thus, several factors influence the elasticity of supply.
Practical Importance
1. The concept of elasticity of supply is of great importance to the finance minister while formulating the taxation policy of the country. If the supply is inelastic, the imposition of tax may not bring about any change in the supply. If supply is elastic, reasonable taxes are to be levied.
2. The price of a commodity depends upon the degree of elasticity of demand and supply.
3. It is used in the theory of incidence of taxation. The money burden of taxation is shared by the tax payers and the sellers in the ratio of elasticity of supply and demand.

Q.4 Show how producers equilibrium is achieved with isoquants and isocost curves.
Ans:- ISO-Quants and ISO-Costs
The prime concern of a firm is to workout the cheapest factor combinations to produce a given quantity of output. There are a large number of alternative combinations of factor inputs which can produce a given quantity of output for a given amount of investment. Hence, a producer has to select the most economical combination out of them. Iso-product curve is a technique developed in recent years to show the equilibrium of a producer with two variable factor inputs. It is a parallel concept to the indifference curve in the theory of consumption.
Meaning and Definitions
The term “Iso – Quant” has been derived from ‘Iso’ meaning equal and ‘Quant’ meaning quantity. Hence, Iso – Quant is also called Equal Product Curve or Product Indifference Curve or Constant Product Curve. An Iso – product curve represents all the possible combinations of two factor inputs which are capable of producing the same level of output. It may be defined as – “ a curve which shows the different combinations of the two inputs producing the same level of output .”
Each Iso – Quant curve represents only one particular level of output. If there are different Iso–Quant curves, they represent different levels of output. Any point on an Iso – Quant curve represents same level of output. Since each point indicates equal level of output, the producer becomes indifferent with respect to any one of the combinations.
PRODUCERS EQUILIBRIUM (Optimum factor combination or least cost combination).
The optimal combination of factor inputs may help in either minimizing cost for a given level of output or maximizing output with a given amount of investment expenditure. In order to explain producer’s equilibrium, we have to integrate Iso-quant curve with that of Iso-cost line. Iso-product curve represent different alternative possible combinations of two factor inputs with the help of which a given level of output can be produced. On the other hand, Iso-cost line shows the total outlay of the producer and the prices of factors of production.
The intention of the producer is to maximize his profits. Profits can be maximized when he is producing maximum output with minimum production cost. Hence, the producer selects the least cost combination of the factor inputs. Maximum output with minimum cost is possible only when he reaches the position of equilibrium. The position of equilibrium is indicated at the point where Iso-Quant curve is tangential to Iso-Cost line. The following diagram explains how the producer reaches the position of equilibrium.

It is quite clear from the diagram that the producer will reach the position of equilibrium at the point E where the Iso-quant curve IQ and Iso-cost line AB is tangent to each other. With a given total out lay of Rs. 5,000 the producer will be producing the highest output, i.e. 500 units by employing 25 units of factors X and 50 units of factor Y. (assuming Rs. 2,500 each is spent on X and Y)
The price of one unit of factor X is Rs.100-00 and that of Y is Rs. 50-00.. Rs.100 x 25 units of 2500 - 00 and Rs. 50 x 50 units of Y = 2500 - 00. He will not reach the position of equilibrium either at the point E1 and E2 because they are on a higher Iso-cost line. Similarly, he cannot move to the left side of E, because they are on a lower Iso-Cost line and he will not be able to produce 500 units of output by any combinations which lie to the left of E.
Thus, the point at which the Iso-Quant is tangent to the Iso-Cost line represents the minimum cost or optimum factor combination for producing a given level of output. At this point, MRTS between the two points is equal to the ratio between the prices of the inputs.

12/12/2011 11:55:45 PM

icon Re: Solve Assignment MB0042
  Thankq so much for u help...guruji

could you please help me to solve Q5 and Q6 answer in Managerial Economic
sub code:-MBoo42


MBA semester-1
MB0041 Financial and management accounting

I Appreciate your efforts in this concern.

Thanks & regards,

12/22/2011 11:21:44 AM

icon Re: Solve Assignment MB0042

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1/18/2012 1:17:52 AM

icon Re: Solve Assignment MB0042
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8/28/2012 3:35:33 PM
Nikhil Nikhil

icon Re: Solve Assignment MB0042
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